Literacy

In the area of literacy we ensure our students are provided with opportunities for reading, writing, listening and speaking for a variety of purposes and audiences. Reading is gathering a message from text. Writing is communicating a message to a reader. Listening and speaking are the building blocks for reading and writing. Literacy is interwoven into all content areas. It is not specific to one part of student learning but rather, is an integral part of what students do each day.

Literacy Essential Outcomes

Demonstrate understanding and enjoyment of literature.

  • With teacher assistance, ask and answer questions about books read aloud.
  • With teacher assistance, retell familiar stories with three or more key events.
  • With teacher assistance, discuss illustrations in books and make personal connections to the pictures and story.

Demonstrate interest in and understanding of informational text.

  • With teacher assistance, ask and answer questions about details in a nonfiction book.

Demonstrate increasing awareness of and competence in emergent reading skills and abilities.

  • Begin to follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
  • Recognize and name some upper/lowercase letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name.
  • With teacher assistance, begin to form some letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name.
  • With teacher assistance, recognize and match words that rhyme.
  • Demonstrate ability to segment and blend syllables in words (e.g. “trac/tor, tractor”).
  • Recognize own name and common signs and labels in the environment.
  • With teacher assistance, demonstrate understanding of the one-to-one correspondence of letters and sounds.

Demonstrate increasing awareness of and competence in emergent writing skills and abilities.

  • Use scribbles, letter-like forms, or letter/words to represent written language.
  • With teacher assistance, use a combination of drawing, dictating, or writing to narrate a single event and provide reaction to what happened.

Demonstrate increasing competence in oral communication (listening and speaking).

  • Follow simple one-, two-, and three-step directions.
  • With teacher assistance, participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners (e.g., peers and adults in both small and large groups) about age-appropriate topics and texts.
  • Continue a conversation through two or more exchanges.
  • Speak using age-appropriate conventions of Standard English grammar and usage.
  • With teacher assistance, begin to use increasingly complex sentences.
  • With teacher assistance, explore word relationships to understand the concepts represented by common categories of words. (e.g. food, clothing, vehicles).
  • With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
  • With prompting and support, identify characters, settings and major events in a story.
  • Recognize common types of text (e.g. storybooks, poems).
  • With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.
  • With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book.
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred and provide a reaction to what happened.
  • With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects.
  • With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
  • Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
  • Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
  • Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.
  • Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.
  • Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
  • Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic. (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion and provide some sense of closure.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic and provide some sense of closure.
  • Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use sequential words to signal event order and provide some sense of closure.
  • With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions, suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects.
  • Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
  • Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story.
  • Acknowledge differences in points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice.
  • Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story by different authors or from different cultures.
  • Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
  • Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.
  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words to connect opinion and reasons and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts and feelings, use sequential words to signal event order and provide a sense of closure.
  • With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
  • Participate in shared research and writing projects.
  • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a literature text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
  • Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
  • Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.
  • Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).
  • Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of an informational text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.
  • Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising and editing.
  • Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • Refer to details and examples in a literature text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
  • Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
  • Compare and contrast the points of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first and third person narrations.
  • Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
  • Refer to details and examples in an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
  • Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgably.
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising and editing.
  • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • Quote accurately from a literature text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
  • Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.
  • Explain how a series of chapters, scenes or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • Compare and contrast stories in the same genre on their approaches to similar themes and topics.
  • Quote accurately from the informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by details; summarize the text.
  • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
  • Compare and contrast the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
  • Analyze multiple accounts of the same events or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).
  • Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach.
  • With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the literature text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgements.
  • Describe how a particular story or drama pot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.
  • Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
  • Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
  • Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.
  • Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another.
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts and information through the selection, organization and analysis of relevant content.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
  • With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach.
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital resources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the literature text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its developments over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
  • Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.
  • Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.
  • Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.
  • Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.
  • Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.
  • Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts and information through the selection, organization and analysis of relevant content.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details and well-structured event sequences.
  • With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the literature text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each texts contributes to its meaning and style.
  • Analyze how differences in the points of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense of humor.
  • Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.
  • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individual, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
  • Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
  • Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
  • Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
  • Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details and well-structured event sequences.
  • With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility of and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Textbooks

  • Benchmark Advanced
  • myPerspectives, Grade 7
  • myPerspectives, Grade 8

Additional Reading